For a better understanding. The Italians between electoral and institutional reforms (1992)

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The political and institutional shifts that shook Italy between 1991 and 1992 appeared as peripheral tremors in an earthquake whose epicentre was the Kremlin. In one way or another, the cyclone that first crumbled the Warsaw Pact and then the former Soviet Union also produced a series of effects beyond the Adriatic Sea. While the international scene, particularly in the Balkans and the Middle East, was undergoing frenetic transformations, the Italian political scene was experiencing a series of new elements. On the one hand, new political forces took their first steps, tending to follow original paths. On the one hand, new political parties are taking their first steps, tending towards original approaches. The PDS, having passed the ford of post-communism, seems to be proposing itself to the left-wing electorate in the unprecedented role of a Democratic Party of the American kind, purely dismissing the ideological level, in search of new instruments and new political practices. At the same time, the “Network” of Leoluca Orlando openly refers to the experiences of the democratic forums of the Central European awakening and those of Catholic associations. At the same time, other original political subjects, such as the Movimento Verde (Green Movement) or the Rifondazione Comunista (Communist Refoundation), bring together the left-wing after four decades of experience since 1968, were born or gained further strength.

On the other hand, the issue of institutional reforms, on which the country’s whole range of political and social forces soon took a position, regained strength and vigour. In a political scenario in constant turbulence, this issue became the leading theme of the meeting/clash between the parties, tending to regulate the timing and methods of the political process.

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Index

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Preface
The institutional issue
by Gian Maria Fara, President of Eurispes and Vittorio Feltri, Director of L’Europeo

Presentation
From the Ashes of Fascism to the Republic – The Constitutional Charter

Chapter 1. Electoral Reforms
Which systems for the next Italy
The Proportional System
The plurality system
The double-round system in uninominal constituencies
Electoral reform proposals in Italy
Electoral referendums
A summary of the positions of some of the parties

Chapter 2. Institutional Reforms
Itinerary of an expected reform
Parties with a new profile
The uncertain definition of reforms
The ground for reforms
Electoral laws
Parliament
Form of Government
Functions of the Head of State
Referendum
Article 138 and constitutional reviews
All against all
Externalism
The French system of 1958
German System
English system
Constitutional ectoplasms
The most recent debates: from maximum systems to mini-reforms.
Does the party pass?

Chapter 3. Annexes
Annex I
Annex II
Annex III
Annex IV
Annex V
Annex VI

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