Costs and benefits of the application of European Safety and Health Standards in SMEs (1997)

The entry into force of DDL 626/94 means completing a formal adaptation of the Italian safety model to the European one. Moreover,  it involves issues the competitiveness of our production compared to foreign ones. This report aims to provide the key to understanding the accident phenomenon in Italy in the decade 1985-1994, which can also be used for future analyses. The work has been structured in four parts: the first, divided into six chapters, is devoted to analysing the trend of accidents at work and occupational diseases in Italy. The second is split into three chapters and compares Italy with three European countries (France, Germany and Great Britain) over 1981-1993. The third part concerns the identification of the path followed by the legislative interventions and the fundamental theories that inspired them, together with a comparative analysis of the legislation in force in the main EU countries. Finally, the fourth part consists of a collection of the opinions of some of the essential figures capable of outlining a complete picture of the factors that contribute to – or limit – the application of 626. The report ends with a statistical appendix in which the data analysed in the previous chapters are set out in a more extensive and comprehensive form.





Volume I



Part One: Italy


Methodological premise




INAIL’s survey methodology


The data collection methodology


The quantities representing the accident phenomenon


The dynamics of the accident phenomenon from 1985 to 1994: socio-economic aspects


Accidents by the economic sector








Government sector data


Analysis by industry group


Manufacturing activity






Mining and quarrying




Occupational diseases


Sectoral comparisons


Types of illness in industry and services


The territorial distribution of accidents


Territorial analysis by production sectors


The regions: accident figures




Final remarks




Part Two: The main European countries








Welfare and employment protection in Europe


European models of social protection


European models of labour protection


The Italian System


The French System


The German system


Accident trends and comparison: four countries in comparison


Data characteristics


Quantitative analysis




Statistical appendix




Volume II




Part Three: The legal framework




International sources on safety at work. The Community framework before Directive 89/391


Safety at work international sources


The ILO Conventions


The other international sources: The European Social Charter


Community sources before directive 89/391. European social policy and occupational safety programmes


Safety at work and Community sources. The genesis of directive 89/391 and its content.


The EEC policy line on safety at work


The origin of Directive 89/391. The opinion of the Economic and Social Council


The content of Directive 89/391


The employer’s obligations: outline of the main provisions of Directive 89/391


The obligations that are foreseen for workers


The Italian constitutional and regulatory sources on safety at work. Legislation and regulatory apparatus before the enactment of Legislative Decree 626/1994




The legal definition of an accident at work in the Italian legal system


The constitutional sources: art. 32, 38 and 41 Cost.


Article 2087 of the Civil Code


The Workers’ Statute: the prescription of art. 9


The genesis of the Italian legislation before the Legislative Decree 626/199


Legislative Decree no. 626 of 19/9/1994. Principles, the content of general rules, areas of application




The scope of application of Legislative Decree 626/1994. The subjects and parts of the legislation


Content of the safety obligation according to the provisions of Legislative Decree 626/1994


The obligations for employers


The obligations for workers


Prevention and protection service


Fires, collective emergencies and first aid


The competent doctor


Worker participation and consultation: the workers’ safety representative


Machinery and work equipment


Provisions on individual protection equipment





Legislative Decree no. 626 of 19/9/1994. Special rules on prevention and safety at work


Work safety rules for activities involving the handling of loads


Workers at video terminals


Protection from carcinogenic agents


Protection from biological agents


Standards for public administration


The provisions of the annexes. General remarks



Part four: In-depth interviews





Methodological framework


Introduction for the reader









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