Europe Report 1993

Italy in Europe: scenarios and prospects

The Europe Report is intended to be a first Italian contribution to the construction of a citizens’ Europe as intended by Cattaneo and Mazzini. The year 1993, announced as the year in which the European Community would make the great leap forward, moving from customs union to social and political union, will probably not be remembered as one of the happiest periods in the history of European community construction. Old issues came to the surface, new ones were added. Some of these, such as immigration from poor countries were easy to foresee, while others, such as the Balkan crisis and the continuing global economic downturn, were unforeseen and perhaps unforeseeable. The international economic situation and structural weaknesses have contributed to worsening the situation and slowing down the process of European integration launched at Maastricht.
The 1993 Europe Report does not deal with all the issues raised by the process of European unification, nor does it attempt to summarise them. The topics have been chosen by Eurispes on the basis of a number of considerations, ranging from the rightful satisfaction with the progress made – which has been acknowledged and emphasised – to a constructively critical recognition of those areas in which there have been setbacks, as with the single currency, to those less discussed topics that were considered essential to the construction of a united Europe, such as telecommunications, the environment and immigration.



by Gian Maria Fara, President of Eurispes


Chapter 1 – The European Turning Point

1. The revolutionary era and the European turning point

2 The shock of the future

3 The “global village” and local society

4. A new economic and political subject: the European Community

5. Benedetto Croce’s prediction


Chapter 2 – Italians and Europe: a survey by EURISPES

1. Italians and Europe: a difficult relationship

2. What Italians know about the European Union

3. The Europe that Italians would like

4. Italians and Community Policies

5. The role of Italy

6. Confidence in the Internal Market


Chapter 3 – Communities, getting to know them

1. The Community Institutions

2. Community rules

3. The value of Community rules

4. The relevance of Community regulations


Chapter 4 – The European Union and the application of the principle of subsidiarity

1. National sovereignty and European Community: a complex ratio

2. Confederal conditions and federal perspective

3. The principle of subsidiarity

4. The progress achieved with the Single European Act

5. The Role of the European Parliament and National Parliaments in the Approval of a European Constitution

6. The principle of subsidiarity in the Maastricht Treaty

7. The Principle of Subsidiarity in Earlier Community Acts

8. Subsidiarity, a reference element of the Community in the federal perspective


Chapter 5 – From Maastricht to the European Union

1. From the Intergovernmental Conferences to the Maastricht Treaty

2. The “pillar” structure: foreign policy

3. Internal and judicial policy

4. The Community based on subsidiarity

5. Economic and monetary policy

6. Institutional changes

7. The persisting democratic deficit

8. From Maastricht to the European Constitution


Chapter 6 – Telecommunications in Europe

1. Preliminary remarks

2. The World Scenario

3. The corporate structure of telecommunications operators in EEC countries

4. EEC regulations

5. The European market

6. The manufacturing supply of telecommunications equipment

7. Approvals of terminal equipment

8. Mobile radio regulation

9. Telephone pirates

10. Telecommunications control and tariff setting

11. An example of privatisation: the United States


Chapter 7 – Scientific and technological research
1. Background

2. The backwardness of the European States

3. Community research and development programmes

4. The use of results

5. The evolution of Community research policy

6. The Commission and the Council facing the future of Community research policy

7. Research in Italy and the technological balance deficit

8. Italy’s position in the development of Community research policy

9. Statistical appendix


Chapter 8 – Community Environmental Policy

1. Preliminary remarks

2. The Maastricht Treaty

3. The Rio de Janeiro Summit

4. The Fifth Community Environmental Action Programme

5. Conclusions


Chapter 9 – Economic and Monetary Union: a great perspective
1. The global economic situation

2. The crisis of the monetary and financial system

3. The conditions for a new order

4. The role of Europe: the Maastricht agreements and Economic and Monetary Union

5. Italy’s position

6. Public Finance

7. Monetary stability

8. Exchange rate stability

9. Conclusions


Chapter 10 – The new reality of the Community Internal Market
1. The internal market, the relaunch of the idea, the principles, the functioning

2. No more customs controls

3. Free movement of goods

4. No more technical borders

5. Free movement of capital

6. Free movement of workers

7. Freedom to provide services and freedom of establishment

8. New frontiers for the judicial system

9. The expansion of the single market from Lampedusa to North Cape: the European Economic Area


Chapter 11 – The Common Agricultural Policy
1. The Common Agricultural Policy, a key component of the European integration

2. The structural components of Community agriculture

3. What is it and how does the Common Agricultural Policy work?

4. The effects of the Common Agricultural Policy and the introduction of the first adjustments

5. The reform of the Common Agricultural Policy

6. Future scenarios

7. Italy’s changing agriculture: growth data

8. Characteristics of change

9. What’s new in the census

10. Regional agricultures between the two agricultural censuses

11. The pursuit of the new

12. Agriculture and the environment

13. Statistical appendix


Chapter 12 – Europe and its economically weak regions
1. The situation of European regions: past and present

2. The situation of the weakest regions

3. Foreseeable developments

4. The impact of the European integration on the regions

5. What needs to be done?

6. Some answers to the identified problems

7. Community action to exploit endogenous potential

8. Conclusions


Chapter 13 – Italy and the Use of Community Funds for the Regional Development: Chronicle of an Ordinary Madness
1. Community, State and Local Authorities

2. It is never too late
3. The opinions of others

4. Incentives for regions in industrial decline

5. Integrated Mediterranean programmes

6. From the Single Act to the post-Maastricht period

7. Balance and prospects


Chapter 14 – Prospects for the Italian economy in the Community Internal Market
1. Introduction

2. The 1993 market: objectives and functioning

3. Italy’s trade flows

4. Advantages for enterprises

5. The main problems affecting Italian firms

6. The most urgent problems

7. Conclusions


Chapter 15 – Social Europe

1. The Founding Treaty

2. The Single Act: innovations and limitations
3. Economic and social cohesion and its instruments

4. The European Social Charter of Fundamental Workers’ Rights
5. Specific contents of the European Social Charter

6. The absence of mandatory instruments

7. The principle of subsidiarity and the “Action Programme”

8. Results of the implementation of the Social Charter

9. The Maastricht Treaty

10. The “Agreement on Social Policy”: contents and challenges

11. Conclusions


Chapter 16 – The Europe of immigrants

1. Migration flows in Europe

2. Why migrations

3. How people migrate, how do they get to Europe?

4. Models of reception

5. Countries of arrival

6. Irregular immigration

7. Refugees and asylum seekers

8. Migration from Eastern Europe

9. The religious factor

10. Family reunification

11. Minors

12. Migrant women

13. Racism

14. Perspectives

15. Some data

File Indice

Summary Document

The European Single Market is born, ISPES becomes EURISPES. In this particular historical and political moment, Italy Report’s analysis has been extended to the European context through the Europe Report.

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